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Bobcat Compact Track Loaders Used The purpose of carnivores in nature, including our Texas cats, is well known to wildlife biologists and ecologists.

Referred to as keystone or flagship species, these top-down regulators control populations of large herbivores deer, for example and other animals from proliferating and help prevent the resulting vegetation degradation caused by these herbivores.

In turn, healthy and sufficient vegetation provides habitat for birds and amphibians. Without carnivores, ecosystems can be negatively altered.

The breadth of our state, its complex natural environment, and an amazing array of wildlife make it vital that we maintain a balance and conserve our natural assets.

Jaguarundi — Herpailurus yaguarondi The jaguarundi shares characteristics with the ocelot; both live in far south Texas and consume similar prey species consisting of rabbits, small birds, and rodents.

Not much larger than a house cat, the jaguarundi is smaller. Jaguar — Panthera onca The jaguar is a member of the genus Panthera, just like tigers, lions, and leopards.

Jaguars, like leopards, may be spotted or melanistic black , although the spots in both are still evident in daylight. They have a short tail about six inches long.

The male and female look alike, but the male will be larger. Occasionally a large male in the thirty- to thirty-five-pound class will be found.

Color varies among the cats, but as a rule the bobcat is a cream-buff shade with tones of gray and brown, mottled with spots. Some cats may have more gray and others more brown.

The lighter belly area is spotted. Even though the bobcat is not classified as a furbearer, its dense, short, soft fur is marketed.

The taking of bobcat pelts by trappers is strictly regulated in Texas, and information collected from harvested cats is used in research studies.

Enemies of adult bobcats include mountain lions, coyotes, and humans. Coyotes also compete with bobcats for food, since they both eat the same prey species.

Excellent eyesight is one of the physical capabilities that allow the bobcat to survive. Its pupils close to thin vertical slits to reduce bright sun-light during the day, and they open wide, covering most of the eyeball, to let in the maximum amount of light at night.

The sensitive eyes are protected vertically with eyelids and horizontally with a thin covering called a nictitating membrane.

The nictitating membrane, connected to the inside corner of the eye, moves across the eye from one side to the other beneath the eyelid.

Bobcats, agile animals, use lookout trees to survey their territories, and may sometimes be spotted on a branch during the day.

For good day and night vision an animal such as the bobcat must have an abundance of both rods light receptors and cones color receptors in its eyes.

The cones allow it to distinguish color, see fine details, and detect movement. The rods respond to changes in light intensity and add to its ability to see at night.

The combination allows the bobcat to lie motionless and see the slightest movement even in low-light conditions. Being able to see the twitch of a field mouse's nose at dusk or in the pre-dawn light can mean the difference between eating and going hungry.

Night vision also is improved by a special mirrorlike membrane called the tapetum ta-PEA-tum , located behind the image surface retina of the bobcat's eye.

This membrane reflects light, allowing these night hunters to use low light twice, once on the way in and again on the way out. This reflected light is called eyeshine, and it is what makes some animals' eyes seem to glow in the dark.

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English Dutch Spanish. It uses several methods to mark its territorial boundaries , including claw marks and deposits of urine or feces.

The bobcat breeds from winter into spring and has a gestation period of about two months. Two subspecies are recognised, one east of the Great Plains , and the other west of the Great Plains.

They were probably separated during interglacial periods in the Pleistocene by the aridification of the Great Plains.

The elusive predator features in some Indigenous Peoples' of North and Central America stories and in the folklore of European colonizers.

There had been debate over whether to classify this species as Lynx rufus or Felis rufus as part of a wider issue regarding whether the four species of Lynx should be given their own genus , or be placed as a subgenus of Felis.

Johnson et al. The bobcat is believed to have evolved from the Eurasian lynx , which crossed into North America by way of the Bering Land Bridge during the Pleistocene , with progenitors arriving as early as 2.

This population evolved into modern bobcats around 20, years ago. A second population arrived from Asia and settled in the north, developing into the modern Canada lynx.

This subspecies division has been challenged, given a lack of clear geographic breaks in their ranges and the minor differences between these subspecies.

Lynx rufus oaxacensis remains under review: [2] [10]. The bobcat resembles other species of the midsize genus Lynx , but is on average the smallest of the four.

Its coat is variable, though generally tan to grayish-brown, with black streaks on the body and dark bars on the forelegs and tail.

Its spotted patterning acts as camouflage. The ears are black-tipped and pointed, with short, black tufts. Generally, an off-white color is seen on the lips, chin, and underparts.

Bobcats in the desert regions of the southwest have the lightest-colored coats, while those in the northern, forested regions are darkest.

Kittens are born well-furred and already have their spots. They appear black, but may still exhibit a spot pattern. The face appears wide due to ruffs of extended hair beneath the ears.

Bobcat eyes are yellow with round, black pupils. The nose of the bobcat is pinkish-red, and it has a base color of gray or yellowish- or brownish-red on its face, sides, and back.

It is an excellent climber, and swims when it needs to, but normally avoids water. The adult bobcat is At birth, it weighs 0.

The cat is larger in its northern range and in open habitats. The bobcat is crepuscular , and is active mostly during twilight.

It keeps on the move from three hours before sunset until about midnight, and then again from before dawn until three hours after sunrise.

Bobcat activities are confined to well-defined territories, which vary in size depending on the sex and the distribution of prey. The home range is marked with feces, urine scent , and by clawing prominent trees in the area.

Its den smells strongly of the bobcat. Reports on seasonal variation in range size have been equivocal. Like most felines, the bobcat is largely solitary, but ranges often overlap.

Unusual for cats, males are more tolerant of overlap, while females rarely wander into others' ranges. When multiple territories overlap, a dominance hierarchy is often established, resulting in the exclusion of some transients from favored areas.

One study noted a dense, unhunted population in California had a sex ratio of 2. When the density decreased, the sex ratio skewed to 0.

Another study observed a similar ratio, and suggested the males may be better able to cope with the increased competition, and this helped limit reproduction until various factors lowered the density.

The bobcat is able to survive for long periods without food, but eats heavily when prey is abundant. During lean periods, it often preys on larger animals, which it can kill and return to feed on later.

The bobcat hunts by stalking its prey and then ambushing with a short chase or pounce. Its preference is for mammals weighing about 1.

Its main prey varies by region: in the eastern United States, it is the eastern cottontail and New England cottontail , and in the north, it is the snowshoe hare.

When these prey species exist together, as in New England, they are the primary food sources of the bobcat.

In the far south, the rabbits and hares are sometimes replaced by cotton rats as the primary food source. Birds up to the size of an adult trumpeter swan are also taken in ambushes, along with their fledglings and eggs.

The bobcat hunts animals of different sizes, and adjusts its hunting techniques accordingly. With small animals, such as rodents including squirrels , birds , fish including small sharks , [39] and insects , it hunts in areas known to be abundant in prey, and will lie, crouch, or stand, and wait for victims to wander close.

It then pounces, grabbing its prey with its sharp, retractable claws. Less commonly, it feeds on larger animals, such as young ungulates , and other carnivores, such as fishers primarily female , foxes , minks , martens , skunks , small dogs , and domesticated cats.

While larger species, such as cattle and horses , are not known to be attacked, bobcats do present a threat to smaller ruminants , such as sheep and goats.

According to the National Agricultural Statistics Service , bobcats killed 11, sheep in , comprising 4.

It has been known to kill deer , especially in winter when smaller prey is scarce, or when deer populations become more abundant.

One study in the Everglades showed a large majority of kills 33 of 39 were fawns , but prey up to eight times the bobcat's weight could be successfully taken.

On the rare occasions a bobcat kills a deer, it eats its fill and then buries the carcass under snow or leaves, often returning to it several times to feed.

The bobcat prey base overlaps with that of other midsized predators of a similar ecological niche. Research in Maine has shown little evidence of competitive relationships between the bobcat and coyote or red fox ; separation distances and territory overlap appeared random among simultaneously monitored animals.

The average bobcat lifespan is 7 years long and rarely exceeds 10 years. The oldest wild bobcat on record was 16 years old, and the oldest captive bobcat lived to be Bobcats generally begin breeding by their second summer, though females may start as early as their first year.

Sperm production begins each year by September or October, and the male is fertile into the summer.

A dominant male travels with a female and mates with her several times, generally from winter until early spring; this varies by location, but most mating takes place during February and March.

The pair may undertake a number of different behaviors, including bumping, chasing, and ambushing. Other males may be in attendance, but remain uninvolved.

Once the male recognizes the female is receptive, he grasps her in the typical felid neck grip and mates with her. The female may later go on to mate with other males, [30] and males generally mate with several females.

Bobcats remain reproductively active throughout their lives. The female raises the young alone. One to six, but usually two to four, kittens are born in April or May, after roughly 60 to 70 days of gestation.

Sometimes, a second litter is born as late as September. The female generally gives birth in an enclosed space, usually a small cave or hollow log.

The young open their eyes by the ninth or tenth day. They start exploring their surroundings at four weeks and are weaned at about two months.

Within three to five months, they begin to travel with their mother. Bobcat tracks show four toes without claw marks, due to their retractable claws.

Like all cats, the bobcat 'directly registers', meaning its hind prints usually fall exactly on top of its fore prints. Bobcat tracks can be generally distinguished from feral or house cat tracks by their larger size: about 2.

The adult bobcat has relatively few predators other than humans. However seldomly, it may be killed in interspecific conflict by several larger predators or fall prey to them.

Cougars and gray wolves can kill adult bobcats, a behavior repeatedly observed in Yellowstone National Park as well as elsewhere.

Kittens may be taken by several predators, including owls almost entirely great horned owls , eagles , foxes , and bears , as well as other adult male bobcats; [66] when prey populations are not abundant, fewer kittens are likely to reach adulthood.

Golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos have been reportedly observed preying on bobcats. Diseases, accidents, hunters, automobiles, and starvation are the other leading causes of death.

Juveniles show high mortality shortly after leaving their mothers, while still perfecting their hunting techniques. One study of 15 bobcats showed yearly survival rates for both sexes averaged 0.

The bobcat may have external parasites , mostly ticks and fleas, and often carries the parasites of its prey, especially those of rabbits and squirrels.

Internal parasites endoparasites are especially common in bobcats. Parasites' and diseases' role in the mortality of the bobcat is still unclear, but they may account for greater mortality than starvation, accidents, and predation.

The bobcat is an adaptable animal. It prefers woodlands— deciduous , coniferous , or mixed—but unlike the other Lynx species, it does not depend exclusively on the deep forest.

It ranges from the humid swamps of Florida to desert lands of Texas or rugged mountain areas. It makes its home near agricultural areas, if rocky ledges, swamps, or forested tracts are present; its spotted coat serves as camouflage.

The bobcat's range does not seem to be limited by human populations, as long as it can find a suitable habitat; only large, intensively cultivated tracts are unsuitable for the species.

The historical range of the bobcat was from southern Canada, throughout the United States, and as far south as the Mexican state of Oaxaca , and it still persists across much of this area.

In the 20th century, it was thought to have lost territory in the US Midwest and parts of the Northeast, including southern Minnesota, eastern South Dakota, and much of Missouri, mostly due to habitat changes from modern agricultural practices.

Its population in Canada is limited due to both snow depth and the presence of the Canadian lynx. The bobcat does not tolerate deep snow, and waits out heavy storms in sheltered areas; [76] it lacks the large, padded feet of the Canadian lynx and cannot support its weight on snow as efficiently.

The bobcat is not entirely at a disadvantage where its range meets that of the larger felid: displacement of the Canadian lynx by the aggressive bobcat has been observed where they interact in Nova Scotia , while the clearing of coniferous forests for agriculture has led to a northward retreat of the Canadian lynx's range to the advantage of the bobcat.

The animal is regulated in all three of its range countries, and is found in a number of protected areas of the United States , its principal territory.

It is listed as least concern on the IUCN Red List , noting it is relatively widespread and abundant, but information from southern Mexico is poor.

The species is considered endangered in Ohio, Indiana, and New Jersey. It was removed from the threatened list of Illinois in and of Iowa in In Pennsylvania, limited hunting and trapping are once again allowed, after having been banned from to The bobcat also suffered population decline in New Jersey at the turn of the 19th century, mainly because of commercial and agricultural developments causing habitat fragmentation ; by , the bobcat was given full legal protection, and was listed as endangered in the state in The bobcat has long been valued both for fur and sport; it has been hunted and trapped by humans, but has maintained a high population, even in the southern United States, where it is extensively hunted.

In the s and s, an unprecedented rise in price for bobcat fur caused further interest in hunting, but by the early s, prices had dropped significantly.

As a result, the rate of bobcat deaths is skewed in winter, when hunting season is generally open. Urbanization can result in the fragmentation of contiguous natural landscapes into patchy habitat within an urban area.

Animals that live in these fragmented areas often have reduced movement between the habitat patches, which can lead to reduced gene flow and pathogen transmission between patches.

Animals such as the bobcat are particularly sensitive to fragmentation because of their large home ranges.

The populations may not be declining as much as predicted, but instead the connectivity of different populations is affected.

This leads to a decrease in natural genetic diversity among bobcat populations. Educating local residents about the animals is critical, as well, for conservation in urban areas.

In bobcats using urban habitats in California, the use of rodenticides has been linked to both secondary poisoning by consuming poisoned rats and mice, and to increased rates of severe mite infestation known as notoedric mange , as an animal with a poison-weakened immune system is less capable of fighting off mange.

Liver autopsies in California bobcats that have succumbed to notoedric mange have revealed chronic rodenticide exposure.

Stories featuring the bobcat, in many variations, are found in some Indigenous cultures of North America, with parallels in South America.

A story from the Nez Perce , for instance, depicts lynx and coyote as opposed, antithetical beings. In a Shawnee tale, the bobcat is outwitted by a rabbit, which gives rise to its spots.

After trapping the rabbit in a tree, the bobcat is persuaded to build a fire, only to have the embers scattered on its fur, leaving it singed with dark brown spots.

Dreaming of two deities, cougar and lynx, they thought, would grant them the superior hunting skills of other Tribes.

Grave artifacts from dirt domes excavated in the s along the Illinois River revealed a complete skeleton of a young bobcat along with a collar made of bone pendants and shell beads that had been buried by the Hopewell culture.

The type and place of burial indicate a tamed and cherished pet or possible spiritual significance. The Hopewell normally buried their dogs, so the bones were initially identified as remains of a puppy, but dogs were usually buried close to the village and not in the mounds themselves.

This is the only wild cat decorated burial on the archaeological record. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Medium-sized North American wild cat.

For other uses, see Bobcat disambiguation. For the wrestler, see Candy Okutsu. For the video game developer, see RedLynx.

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